Techniques

Through its connected companies, Keller offers the full suite of geotechnical construction techniques. Hover over any technique to learn more.

Anchor block slope stabilization remediates slopes or existing retaining walls, using anchored reaction blocks. Common uses include stabilizing slopes and stabilizing existing retaining walls. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Anchor Block Slope Stabilization

Anchor Block Slope Stabilization

Anchors transfer tension loads, using high-strength steel bars or steel strand tendons. Common uses include laterally supporting retaining walls and resisting uplifting forces. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Anchors

Anchors

Augercast piles, aka continuous flight auger piles (CFA), are cast-in-place piles, using a hollow stem auger with continuous flights. Common use is structural support. Performed by Hayward Baker, Case Foundation, McKinney Drilling, Anderson Drilling, HJ Foundation, Geo-Foundations & Keller Canada.

Augercast Piles

Augercast Piles

Cement grouting fills cracks or voids in soil and rock and permeates coarse, granular soils to create a cemented mass. Common uses include groundwater control, underpinning foundations, and excavation support. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Cement Grouting

Cement Grouting

Chemical grouting permeates pore spaces in granular soils with a low viscosity non-particulate grout, which hardens to create a cemented mass. Common uses include excavation support, underpinning, and soil stabilization for tunneling. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Chemical Grouting

Chemical Grouting

Drilled shafts, or caissons, are cast-in-place shafts constructed with an auger. Common uses include structural support and earth retention. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Case Foundation, McKinney Drilling, Seaboard Foundations, Anderson Drilling, Geo-Foundations & Keller Canada.

Drilled Shafts

Drilled Shafts

Driven Piles are installed using impact or vibration hammers to a design depth or resistance. Common uses include structural support and earth retention. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker.

Driven Piles

Driven Piles

Dry soil mixing involves mechanically mixing wet soils with a dry, cement binder. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity, decreasing settlement, and increasing global stability. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations, and Keller Canada.

Dry Soil Mixing

Dry Soil Mixing

Dynamic compaction uses the energy from a falling weight to improve granular soils and fills. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity, decreasing settlement, and mitigating liquefaction. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations, and Keller Canada.

Dynamic Compaction

Dynamic Compaction

Earthquake drains consist of high flow capacity, prefabricated vertical drains to control seismically induced increases in the pore pressure. The common use is to mitigate liquefaction. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker.

Earthquake Drains

Earthquake Drains

Fracture grouting is the injection of a cement slurry grout, hydrofracturing soil, creating lenses that lift the overlying soil and structures. Common uses include releveling structures and stabilizing overlying structures. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Fracture Grouting

Fracture Grouting

Franki Piles, also known as Pressure Injected Footings (PIFS), are high-capacity, cast-in-place elements constructed using a drop weight and casing. The common use is to provide structural support. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker.

Franki Piles (PIFs)

Franki Piles (PIFs)

Gabions are rectangular, interconnected, stone filled wire baskets used to construct gravity retaining walls. Common uses include temporary or permanent retaining walls and channel linings. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker.

Gabions

Gabions

Helical piles, also known as helical piers, are constructed using steel shafts with helical flights. Common uses include structural support and foundation underpinning. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Cyntech, and Keller Canada.

Helical Piles

Helical Piles

Injection systems involve the injection of aqueous solutions into the ground. Common uses include stabilizing expansive soils, embankments and levees, and railroad subgrades. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker.

Injection Systems

Injection Systems

Jacked piers are constructed using small-diameter steel pipes advanced to bearing depth by hydraulic jacks that are secured to the structure. The common use is to underpin foundations. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations, and Keller Canada.

Jacked Piers

Jacked Piers

Jet Grouting uses high velocity fluid jets to construct cemented soil of varying geometries in the ground. Common uses include excavation support, foundation underpinning, and constructing bottom seals for planned excavations. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Jet Grouting

Jet Grouting

Load Bearing Elements (LBE), also known as Barrettes, is a term that refers to the use of single or a multiple arrangement of rectangular elements to support significant structural loads. The common use is structural support. This technique is performed by Bencor.

Load Bearing Elements

Load Bearing Elements

Low mobility (compaction) grouting is the injection of mortar grout to densify and reinforce soil or fill voids. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity, decreasing settlement and liquefaction potential, and stabilizing sinkholes. Performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations & Keller Canada.

Low Mobility (Compaction) Grouting

Low Mobility (Compaction) Grouting

A macropile is an ultra-high-capacity micropile typically drilled in place. The common use is structural support. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations, and Keller Canada.

Macropiles

Macropiles

Micropile Slide Stabilization System (MS³) consists of an array of micropiles, sometimes in combination with anchors. The common use is to stabilize slopes. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Micropile Slide Stabilization System

Micropile Slide Stabilization System

Micropiles are a deep foundation element constructed using high-strength, small-diameter steel casing and/or threaded bar. Common uses include structural support, foundation underpinning, and stabilize slides. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations, and Keller Canda.

Micropiles

Micropiles

Pit underpinning stabilizes structures prior to adjacent excavation, using concrete and mortar. Common uses include excavation support and underpinning. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker.

Pit Underpinning

Pit Underpinning

Polyurethane grouting involves the injection of expanding polyurethane. Common uses include void filling, releveling slabs, and sealing cracks and joints. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Polyurethane Grouting

Polyurethane Grouting

Post-tensioning creates cast-in-place, prestressed concrete by reinforcing the foundation after the concrete has been placed. Common uses include elevated slabs and slab on-grade, where expansive soils are present. This technique is performed by Suncoast Post-Tension.

Post-Tensioning

Post-Tensioning

Rapid Impact Compaction densifies shallow, granular soils, using a hydraulic hammer, which repeatedly strikes an impact plate on the ground surface. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity and decreasing settlement. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Rapid Impact Compaction

Rapid Impact Compaction

Rigid inclusions transfer loads through weak strata to a firm underlying stratum using high modulus, controlled stiffness columns. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity and decreasing settlement. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Rigid Inclusions

Rigid Inclusions

Sculpted shotcrete is a shotcrete surface textured while wet to produce a desired appearance. Common uses include dyeing and sculpting to resemble natural rock cuts, panels, or stone block walls. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Sculpted Shotcrete

Sculpted Shotcrete

Secant/tangent piles are columns constructed adjacent (tangent) or overlapping (secant). Common uses include structural or cutoff walls. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Case Foundation, Case Atlantic, Bencor, Anderson Drilling, Keller Canada, McKinney Drilling, & Seaboard Foundations.

Secant or Tangent Piles

Secant or Tangent Piles

Sheet piling retains soil, using steel sheets with interlocking edges. Common uses include excavation support, groundwater control, and seawall construction. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, HJ Foundation, and Keller Canada.

Sheet Piles

Sheet Piles

Slab jacking involves the controlled injection of Portland cement grout. Common uses include slab leveling and void filling. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Slab Jacking

Slab Jacking

Slurry walls are constructed using a bentonite or cement-bentonite slurry to stabilize the trench during excavation. Common uses include groundwater control, excavation support, and structural support. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Bencor, and Keller Canada.

Slurry/Diaphragm Walls

Slurry/Diaphragm Walls

Soil nailing uses grouted, tension-resisting steel elements (nails) installed to reinforce the soil creating a gravity retaining wall. Common uses include excavation support, slope stabilization, and retaining wall repair. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker and Geo-Foundations.

Soil Nailing

Soil Nailing

Soldier piles and lagging retains soil, using vertical steel piles with horizontal lagging. The common use is excavation support. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations, and Keller Canada.

Soldies Piles & Lagging

Soldies Piles & Lagging

TRD soil mix walls are mixed-in-place using a specialized vertical cutter post mounted on a base crawler machine. Common uses include groundwater control and excavation support. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker.

TRD - Soil Mix Walls

TRD - Soil Mix Walls

Vibro compaction densifies clean, cohesionless granular soils with a downhole vibrator. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity, decreasing settlement, and mitigating liquefaction. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations, and Keller Canada.

Vibro Compaction

Vibro Compaction

Vibro concrete columns transfer loads to a competent underlying stratum, using high modulus concrete columns constructed with a bottom-feed vibratory probe. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity and decreasing settlement. Performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations & Keller Canada.

Vibro Concrete Columns

Vibro Concrete Columns

Vibro (Aggregate) Piers is the construction of stiff aggregate piers to reinforce fine grained soils. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity and decreasing settlement. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations, and Keller Canada..

Vibro Piers (Aggregate Piers)

Vibro Piers (Aggregate Piers)

Vibro replacement is the construction of dense aggregate columns (stone columns) with a down-hole vibrator hung from a crane or built rig. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity, decreasing settlement, and mitigating liquefaction. Performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations & Keller Canada.

Vibro Replacement

Vibro Replacement

Wet soil mixing improves the weak soils by mechanically mixing them with cementitious binder slurry. Common uses include increasing bearing capacity, decreasing settlement, mitigating liquefaction, and groundwater control. Performed by Hayward Baker, Geo-Foundations & Keller Canada.

Wet Soil Mixing

Wet Soil Mixing

Wick drains, also known as Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD), are installed to provide drainage paths for pore water in soft compressible soil. Common uses include accelerating surcharge programs and consolidating tailing ponds and leach pads. This technique is performed by Hayward Baker.

Wick Drains

Wick Drains

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